Geometry and Proportion in Imam Mosque of Isfahan
Pooria Moradi*-Mahsa Hashemi-Mahmud Moeini-Behbood Jamshidi
Department of Architecture, Malayer Branch.Islamic Azad University, Malayer, Iran.
Department of Architecture, Malayer Branch.Islamic Azad University, Malayer, Iran
Department of Architecture, Malayer Branch.Islamic Azad University, Malayer, Iran
English Group,Department oflanguages,teachers education University Hamedan
Abstract :
Certain geometrical numbers and decision have always attracted the predecessors at the mention due to the charms of their underlying principles. Yet, in the architecture of the recent construction, little attention has been paid to the proportions and relations of the numbers after the Pahlavi .period from the article has decided to conduct a descriptive-analytical study of the proportions in the courtyard of Imam Mosque in Isfahan Ivhich has been built during the Safavid period. The purpose of the study is to investigate the changes and proportions which are being imposed upon the mosque. In fact, this attempt raises the following issues: what proportions exist in the reformation of the courtyard of Imam Mosque? What sort of ratios can one estimate between the sideways of the courtyard and what is the relationship between the courtyard and its middle pond?
In sum, the advantages and characteristics of the Safavid mosque, especially in Isfahan city, are due to the fact that the Islamic Iranian architecture reaches the peak of its perfection and grandeur during the Safavid period; beyond the period.
Key Words: Safavid, Isfahan, Imam Mosque, Proportions
Proportions represent a set of the ration. Every apparatus organizing the proportion is in possession of specific ration which interacts among their components, with each other and in a component to the whole relationship. In the field of architecture, proportions include comparative rations of the quantities and different and heterogeneous qualities; whereas. they find an undeniable value in the basics of art realization when they rely on the geometry and mathematics in its specialized from (Career,2001). The fundamental purpose of all theories within the proportions of art is to create a sense of order and organization between the components of the visual composition. Although a viewer may not realize the proportions in his first glance, the created visual composition within a field emphasizes the proportions and proportionality based on the good and divine traits and the justice principle and equity. (noghrekar,2008).
The geometry of size and shape in architecture applies for the use of traditional measurement units space designing an arrangement with the checkered grid, the architectural space, and body and the exploitation of the base circle within the center of design and construction.
The Safavids paid special attention to the proportions in comparison to the other historical periods in Iran. We have constantly noticed the periods architectural designs in which certain geometrical principle and special proportions have been implemented. Like their own predecessors, the Safavid kings gave special heed to the city of Isfahan. Although the city was not the capital during the reign of Shah Ismail, it was continuously considered by the rulers and kings of the dynasty. ( Naini,s.2008)
Owing to the fact that the peak of architectural flourishment took place during the reign of the Great Shah Abbas in the Safavid dynasty. the king had a great deal of artistic talent and be also was a Shia believing in the twelve Imams, it was naturals him to pay special attention to the religions and holy places. This issue provided us with a suitable ground to study the religious sites especially mosques.
: Research Methodology
The library research was used to collect the data, documents and certificates were surveyed and the maps and images of the respective place were examined and analyzed.
Research Background :
Noghrekar (2008) in his texts of THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS of ARCHITECTURE and An INTRODUCTION to the ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE, has described the application of geometry and proportions. He has clearly with the function of geometry, its form and proportions in the architecture and design of the Iranian buildings. Amin zadeh has compiled MOSQUE COURTYARD: A HISTORICAL SURVEY THE COURSE OF EVOLUTION which reviews the significance of courtyards in mosques and religious locations. The shortage of resource in the field of proportions relevant to the open space, the courtyard of the mosque the application category of proportion and its symbolic and spiritual concepts makes the researcher view the open space of the mosque proportionally.
Statement of the Problem :
The courtyard is of great significance among the elements forming to a mosque. In fact, the courtyard and the usable open space were the important elements built in mosques throughout the Islamic countries in many centuries . some were established by the caliphs and sultans; other were constructed by residents of the local areas very plainly. They gave the identity to the mosque and several as the epitome of unity. The influential factor of Islamic worldview, the pattern of Medina Mosque and the tradition of benefiting from a central courtyard have long existed in the architectural culture of the middle east inhabitants .therefore, they have made the people utilize the central courtyard as one of the main elements when they build a mosque (Aminzadu, 1997) that is why the researcher, have, examines the proportions of the courtyard located in Imam Mosque of Isfahan.
Isfahan Architecture in the Safavid era :
Architecture of the Safavid era has encountered several ups and downs.each king has exerted their impacts upon the era’s architecture based on their taste and mood Amol the economical and political conditions of the period of all the Safavid kings, king Ismail I, ( the founder of the Safavid dynasty) and king Abbas showed were talents for art. The rest of the kings have carried out the restoration of the works remained. In doing so, they have barely created new monuments or innovated anything. The new Imam Mosque has been constructed reminds us of the period of Shah Abbas I, so the researcher finds it necessary to survey that period of time in the first place.
When Shah Abbas I made the accession to the throne, the golden age of architecture began. He started a new era in the Iranian architecture due to his continual ambition, immense talent, artistic enthusiasm and the wealth his worthy government had created. the new era represented the vivid details whit passionate colors which had been created by the predecessors. They turned into some illuminated and vivid collections at large scale with a great deal at grandeur and magnificence. The book of UPRISING DESCENT of THE SAFAVIDS cited the use of geometry and proportions in the constituted building of the architecture of the period including.
The architects such us sheikhbahai.from date, an artisans artists poets architects and calligraphers entered Isfahan to start their conduct at constructions. (Naini,s.2007)
The architectural designs drawn during the Safavid era were the best possible ones which may not be plausible at the prevent time. the architects of that era tried to create works of art which represented divine traces colors and smells whoever ventured to enter into the works of art tended to remember the lord of the universe and to make the meditation of that grandeur.
A survey of proportions in the courtyard of shuh (Imum)mosque in Isfahan.
If one takes a careful notice of the courtyard in Imam mosque they will get acquainted with the Iranian architects computations.this can be done very easily because compared with the present situation no changes have taken place to transform its original constructive designs which were drawn up by its master namely Ali A Isfahani, in short, our in friends of his space understanding appear to be interesting show that they possess fundamentally mathematical geometrical and scientific grounds . If the architect of the construction advanced the flow of abstraction in his work so greatly, it would be due to his willingness to enrich it with the special date. we are well aware that the geometrical digits and shapes have had a secondary meaning to the Muslim scientists like the medieval gothic stylists. they also give a divine representation and the first reasoning of the creation. anyway, when we review the muff of the cruciferous courtyard, we must admit.
That its proportions are describable and justifiable. this courtyard has not been plotted on a square shape, rather it is a long rectangular, that is, in terms of the axis facing the south ( qibla ) its width is more than its length . in addition, the present isotropy between the pond, porches and the clome-shaped auditorium cannot be the result of a random chance . in fact, the indentations at the top of the small portico (northern, eastern and western ) and the eastern and western domes have a width equal to that of the central pond ; whereas , the indentations at the great southern porch and the dome of the prayers hall have a width equal to the length of the same pond . is it not true that all important dimensions of the mosque ( the courtyard, the porch and the dome ) result from the width and length of the central pond ? , that is, is not water the essence of existence and the origin of vitality for the construction (Isfahan: the Garden of Heaven, 2011).
With regard to the dimensions and the proportions at the porch of the courtyard and the dome of Imam Mosque and the dimensions and sizes of the central courtyard pond in the mosque, one may as well conclude that all are in proportion and related to each other . it can be stated that the water of the pond ( the source of life and vitality ) gives proportion to the mosque ( see the figure captioned by massage of the mosque in the water and the proportions of the pond with the courtyard ).
They will obtain a line which will exactly pass through angles of the pond and encompass it. if the same action is repeated for the sideways of the courtyard the semicircles will again pass through the same sideways yet, it will only encircle a narrow marginal part of the pond.
It is noticeable that the right angles of the pond are corresponding to the courtyard angles. this string of specifications can only be located in the rectangle which stands for the Pythagorean rectangle .its width proportionates to its length 3 to 4 while its diameter signifies 5.
In the ancient times, people used to deploy the series of 3, 4 and 5 proportions so as to define the magical shape. we have to remember that the first the characterization of the right triangle relevant to the above proportions requires that the sum of the squares for its two right sideways ( 16+9 ) become equal to 25 whose root is the integer of 5.
With regard to the Iranian fascination with mathematical and geometrical problems, such proportions cannot be interpreted as random. if we notice that the sum of the three-digit Related to the proportions of the rectangle; namely, 3,4,5 becomes equal to 12, then we will realize that the important tendency toward the symbols pertaining To the proportions is visible (Isfahan: the Heaven Garden, 2011).
In fact, we are aware that for the Persian Shiites, number 12 has always had a fundamental value because it exactly represents the number of Imams upon whose existence the preguition at 12 Imams Shiitism has been found.
According to Henry corban, twelve Imams have been accounted for the prophetic mission after the prophet of Islam ( PBUH ) on the twelve Imam, the absent one is hidden from the viewers but present in the hearts of the believers. like Christ in the world of Christianity, people ought to the visiting the promised person. anyhow, henry Corban, the western Shiite scholar, states, the flourishing of Shi’ism, in principle, is the glory or in other words, to the revelation of the mystical wisdom in Islam again . that is to say, the Shiite mysticism is the best illustrates Of the inner mode in Islam. if the point is added that Shah Abbas, the founder, and creator of Shah mosque in Isfahan, was a hard-line Shiite Muslims’ defender, the significance of number 12 will be better reveal (Isfahan: The Heaven Garden, 2011).
Because, in the Safavid period, this is Shah Abbas, the great, who especially the Islamic and Shiite meaning concepts and holy numbers into the visions highlighting the artistic and architectural works . in fact, one of the most important aspects of Safavid artistic works is its use of concepts and Meanings when compared with its past dynasties.
Corban, H. further the promotion of Shi’ism and the title of state religion Given by the Safavids in the loth century A.D. the tenth lunar (century A.H.) .made it more precise and decisive To resort to the ruby Of dissimulation. since then, it does not seem to be possible to exclude or ignore The digital message which forms the construct Such as shah mosque.
Conclusion :
Finally, it should be recalled that the majestic Wisdom was taken to Rome and Greece by the scholars and philosophy. plate and Aristotle expanded and extended it so as to return it to its original source, ie.
Iran it adopted a new form under the rubric of Islamic framework. so, it can be claimed that the Islamic philosophy is the most comprehensive and inclusive trend. However, most Iranian philosophers such as Sheikh Shahabuddin Suhrawaardi refer to the ancient epoch of philosophy and name Plato and Aristotle With great tributes. this is true about the great dignified prophet of Islam, Mohammad ( PBUH) who they say has spoken of Pluto and Aristotle as the divine prophets.
It is also realized that the Iranian constructional Engineers’ concern does not end in the aesthetic and external issues of the construction Yet they regard its internal and cognitive aspects as significant as its external and superficial ones .of all the constructional Products, the mosque, the house of God or the place of subjects’ worship, occupies a special position because it is in possession Of both internal and external beauties.
Apart of them is composed of geometry And proportions since they organize the construction .it can be claimed that when someone takes geometry and proportions away from the building of a mosque, it becomes impossible to create its internal and external aspects And beautify The mosque.
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6) Aminzadeh Goharrizi, Behnaz,1997, Mosque courtyard: Historical review and evolution, Proceedings of the Mosque Architecture Conference, the past, Now, the future, Isfahan, Art University, College campus.